What is a stereotype?

A stereotype is a preconceived or oversimplified generalization about an entire group of people without regard for individual differences.


The term stereotype derives from the Greek words "stereos" [firm, solid] and typos [impression], hence "solid impression."


In the 19th century, stereotype referred to a "solid plate" used for printing.


The modern use of the term was first used  by Walter Lippmann in his 1922 book “Public Opinion.”

  • Lippmann coined the term stereotype in the chapter: "The World Outside and Pictures in Our Heads."
Why are stereotypes damaging?

Broad pattern of U.S. media treatment of ethnic groups:

  • Stage 1: Exclusion
  • Stage 2: Ridicule and stereotyping
  • Stage 3: Realistic portrayals


TCOM technology megatrends
  • Computerization
  • Information technology
  • Digital convergence
  • Connectivity
  • Broadband
  • Digital compression
  • Interactivity
  • Multimedia
  • Personalization
  • Miniaturization
  • High Resolution
  • Portability
  • Mobility
Megatrends can be a starting point for analyzing the TCOM world.

Megatrend #1: Shift to digital technology


Digitalization
, or computerization, refers to the shift to a society where computers are ubiquitous; to carry out, control, or conduct by means of a computer.


Megatrend #12: Rise of information technology


Information technology
merges computing with high-speed communication links carrying data, sound & video.


Megatrend #3: Digital convergence


Digital convergence
is the merger of several industries & various devices that exchange info in the digital format used by computers.


Digital Convergence

  • All media going digital
  • Data networks and devices are integrating
  • Industries are converging
Comcast Corp. is the No. 1 cable giant, serving approximately 24 million U.S. subscribers.The triple play and the quadruple play.

Convergence of services:
In recent years the term convergence has also come to refer specifically to the ongoing 'bundling' of services by telecom players.


Megatrend #4: Rise of connectivity


Connectivity
: The ability to connect computers to one another by wires or wireless technology to provide online information access.

  • Dial-up
  • Cable modem
  • DSL (Digital subscriber line)
  • Wi-Fi
  • 4GLTE
  • Mobile broadband
  • Satellite Internet
Megatrend #6: Expansion of broadband

Broadband
refers to a transmission facility that has bandwidth (capacity) to carry many channels of information.

Top U.S. broadband providers (2013)

Comcast                19.8M
AT&T                      16.5M
Time Warner         11.5M
Verizon                    8.9M.


Megatrend #7: Advances in digital compression


Digital compression
reduces the number of computer digits that have to be transmitted while preserving the basic information content.
  • Emerging compress scheme: HTML5 video.
Megatrend #8: Increased interactivity

Interactivity
means that the user is able to make an immediate response to what is going on & modify the process, i.e. there is dialog between the user & the computer or communications devices.
  • Some new “smart TVs” let you control your set with voice, hand gesture or a touchpad remote.
Megatrend #9: Expansion of multimedia

Multimedia
refers to technology that presents information in more than one medium, including text, graphics, animation, video, music & voice.
  • Smart phones and tablets have a strong focus on multimedia capabilities..
Megatrend #10: Rise of personalization

Personalization
refers to the delivery of individualized (customized) information and entertainment via electronic media.

  • Launched in 2005, Pandora is free, personalized Internet radio service.
Megatrend #11: Advances in miniaturization

Miniaturization
is the continual shrinkage of the dimensions of a technology -- length, width and height; the design and construction of TCOM equipment in small scale.

  • Nanotechnology: Miniaturization technology dealing with matter on a molecular size scale of nanometers (1 billionth of a meter).
Megatrend #12: Advances in screen resolution

Simply put, resolution refers to the clarity of the image on a video display screen.

  • HDTV: One mode of digital TV whereby the broadcaster transmits a wide-screen picture with many times more detail than is contained in current analog television pictures.
  • Blu-ray disc is the next generation optical disc format meant for high definition video (HD) and high density data storage. (Sony)
  • Fidelity refers to the accuracy with which an electronic system reproduces the sound or image of its input signal.
  • HD Radio is the technology selected by the FCC in 2002 for terrestrial digital audio broadcasting in the U.S.
UltraHD: Now even more pixels…

Traditionally, the industry measures a TV's resolution by its vertical pixel count. So, a 1920x1080 TV is marketed as "1080"  

But for 4K and 8K resolutions, we've switched to the horizontal measurement.
  • The "4K" resolution is 3840×2160 (Quad Full HD)
  • The 8K resolution (Ultra HD) is 7680×4320
  • The amount of content available for these hyper-pixeled displays?
Megatrend #13: Rise of portability

Portability
means that people may easily move from physical location to location yet still use a device wherever they are.


Megatrend #14: Growth of wireless & mobile communication


Mobility
means that users are able to access services while on the move, taking advantage of a wireless networking infrastructure.

  • Wi-Fi, or Wireless Fidelity, allows you to connect to the Internet from various locations without wires.
  • On the market since 2006, WiMAX is a wireless standard designed to extend local Wi-Fi networks up to 30 miles.
  • 3-G: Third-generation mobile phone technology. 3G phones have the ability to transfer non-voice data (such as mobile TV and Web data).
  • Introduced in 2009, Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a new standard in mobile phone network technology that is often marketed as 4G.
  • 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards.
In 2009, the International Telecommunications Union set a 4G standard of 100 Mbit/s.

The Clinton-Gore administration called the “information highway” the National Information Infrastructure (NII)


President Bush set a goal of providing affordable broadband services to all Americans during his administration.


President Obama
supports high-speed Internet access for all Americans.  But who will pay?